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GAT Subject Test (Statistics)
National Testing Service Pakistan
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Anna
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Many find it strange that her writing is thought to be tortuous; her recent essays, although longer than most of her earlier essays, are extremely_______.
A. Insightful.
B. Tedious.
C. Painstacking.
D. Sophisticated.
Anna
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
The author presents the life of Zane Grey with _____ unusual in a biographer: he is not even convinced that Grey was a good writer.
A. Deftness.
B. A Zeal.
C. A Detachment.
D. An eloquence.
Bashir Farooqi
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
During their operational lifetimes, the majority of spacecraft currently face minimal risk of collision with space junk, but given the number of new satellites launched each year, the orbital environment is likely to be less ________ in the future.
A. Defective.
B. Invoked.
C. Protected.
D. None of these.
Bashir Farooqi
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Florence Nightingale was ___ in the development of modern medicine, ___ such practices as sanitization of hospital wards and isolation of actively infected patients.
A. an innovator…initiating.
B. rejecting…a collaborator.
C. a maverick…protesting.
D. An individualist…standardizing .
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Linda Greenhouse's articles for the New York Times are an outstanding example of ___, capsulizing prose into a necessarily limited space.
A. Callousness.
B. Brevity.
C. Intuition.
D. None of these.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Roberto Clement was seen as ___ during his life because of both his selflessness on the baseball field and his humanitarian work in his native Nicaragua
A. a grandstander.
B. An individualist.
C. . a sybarite .
D. an opportunist.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
His habit of spending more than he earned left him in a state of perpetual but hehoping to see a more affluent day
A. motion: responded.
B. enervation: retaliated by.
C. confusion: compromised by.
D. indigence: persevered in.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Known for his commitment to numerous worthy causes, the philanthropist deserved for his
A. Credit: altruism.
B. Reward: modesty .
C. blame: hypocrisy.
D. recognition: folly.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
You should this paragraph in order to make your essay more
A. Remove, discursive.
B. Enlarge, redundant .
C. Delete, succinct.
D. Revise, abstruse.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Aglance paysattention to details
A. Furtive: meticulous.
B. Cursory: little.
C. Cryptic: close.
D. Keen: scanty.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Surprisingly enough, it is more difficult to write about thethan about theand strange.
A. simple, routine.
B. commonplace, exotic.
C. abstract, prosaic.
D. specific, foreign.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Aresponse is one that is made with.
A. harmful, grimaces.
B. sure, slowness.
C. speedy, alacrity.
D. stupid, fear.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
3. Ais a.
A. doctrine, follower.
B. discipline, school.
C. criterion, mistake.
D. norm, standard.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
It is widely believed that a nuclear war could ____ enough smoke and dust to block out the sun and freeze the earth.
A. Generate.
B. Extinguish.
C. Billow.
D. None of these.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Consumption of red meat has ____ because its fat content has become a worrisome and ____ matter.
A. Skyrocketed ... stressful.
B. Abated ... dubious .
C. Declined ... controversial.
D. None these.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
It takes ____ character to ____ the extremities of the arctic region.
A. A nomadic ... espouse.
B. An unflappable ... sustain.
C. An inimitable ... resist.
D. None of these.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Consumers refused to buy meat products from the company because of rumors that the water supply at the meat processing plant was ______; the rumors, however, were quite ______, with no hard evidence to back them up.
A. Contaminated .. unsubstantiated.
B. Impure .. damaging.
C. Misdirected .. scandalous.
D. Unscrupulous .. vicious.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Many kinds of harmful viruses are unhindered when passing through different parts of the host organism; indeed, there are few organic substances which such viruses’ cannot______.
A. exterminate.
B. perforate.
C. aerate.
D. None of these.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Their conversation was unsettling, for the gravity of their topic contrasted so oddly with the ______ of their tone
A. rapidity.
B. lightness.
C. precision.
D. None of these.
Muhammad Tayyab Ikhlas
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Throughout the animal kingdom, ____ bigger than the elephant.
A. only the whale is.
B. is the whale only.
C. whale is only the.
D. whale is only.
Fani Warraich
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Although its publicity has been ___, the film itself is intelligent, wellacted, handsomely produced and altogether ___
A. perfect … spectacular.
B. sophisticated … moderate.
C. extensive … moderate.
D. tasteless … respectable.
Fani Warraich
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
The Inuit natives of Alaska's North Slope worry that ___ oil exploration might ___their sensitive natural environment.
A. unregulated…damage.
B. curtailed…shatter.
C. current…bolster.
D. additional…assist.
Fani Warraich
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Ants live in colonies based on ___; each member contributes to the good of all by actively working with others in performing necessary tasks.
A. Heredity.
B. Cooperation.
C. Reasoning.
D. Instinct.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
In the given sentence, identify the gerund phrase: "Running marathons in extreme weather conditions requires immense determination and endurance."
A. Running marathons.
B. Marathons in extreme weather conditions.
C. Requires immense determination.
D. And endurance.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Identify the logical fallacy in the following argument: "I've never seen a black swan; therefore, black swans do not exist."
A. Circular Reasoning.
B. Hasty Generalization.
C. False Cause.
D. Appeal to Ignorance.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Choose the word that best completes the analogy: Adorn: Decorate :: _______ : Amass
A. Squander.
B. Preserve.
C. Hoard.
D. None of the above.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Verbal Reasoning
Identify the figure of speech used in the following sentence :"The stars danced playfully in the sky."
A. Simile.
B. Hyperbole.
C. Personification.
D. Metaphor.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Analytical Reasoning
An office building has five floors, numbered one through five. Each floor has a different color carpet: red, blue, green, yellow, and white. The following conditions must be met: i. The red carpet cannot be on the top floor. ii. The blue carpet must be above the green carpet but below the yellow carpet. iii. The white carpet must be on a higher floor than the green carpet but cannot be on the top floor. In which of the following arrangements is the sequence of floors correctly matched with the colors of their respective carpets?
A. Floor 1: Red, Floor 2: Blue, Floor 3: Green, Floor 4: Yellow, Floor 5: White.
B. Floor 1: Green, Floor 2: Blue, Floor 3: Red, Floor 4: White, Floor 5: Yellow.
C. Floor 1: Yellow, Floor 2: Blue, Floor 3: Green, Floor 4: White, Floor 5: Red.
D. Floor 1: Blue, Floor 2: Green, Floor 3: Red, Floor 4: Yellow, Floor 5: White.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Analytical Reasoning
In a certain company, there are seven executives: Adam, Ben, Chris, David, Emily, Fiona, and Grace. They are seated in a row of chairs. The following conditions must be met: i. Adam cannot sit next to Chris or Emily. ii. Ben must sit next to David. iii. Fiona cannot sit at either end of the row. Which of the following is a valid arrangement of the executives?
A. Adam, Ben, Chris, David, Emily, Fiona, Grace.
B. Fiona, Emily, Ben, David, Adam, Chris, Grace.
C. Grace, Fiona, Emily, Ben, David, Adam, Chris.
D. Chris, David, Ben, Emily, Adam, Grace, Fiona.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Analytical Reasoning
Five friends – Alex, Brian, Chris, David, and Eric – are participating in a singing competition. They will perform one after the other. The following conditions must be met: i. Alex cannot perform before David or Eric. ii. Brian must perform before Chris. iii. David cannot be the first or last to perform. In which of the following sequences can the friends perform according to the given conditions?
A. Eric, Alex, David, Brian, Chris.
B. Chris, David, Brian, Alex, Eric.
C. Brian, Eric, Chris, David, Alex.
D. David, Eric, Alex, Chris, Brian.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Analytical Reasoning
In a chess tournament, there are six players: Alice, Bob, Carol, David, Emily, and Frank. Each player plays exactly once against each of the other players. The following conditions must be met: i. Alice must play against Bob and Emily. ii. Carol cannot play against David or Frank. iii. Emily must play against Alice and David. How many different matches can be played in total?
A. 15.
B. 18.
C. 12.
D. 21.
Sidis
IQ APTITUDE & ABILITY

Analytical Reasoning
Five books – A, B, C, D, and E – are placed on a shelf. The following conditions must be met: i. Book A cannot be placed next to book B. ii. Book C must be placed between books B and D. iii. Book E must be placed somewhere to the right of book A. Which of the following represents a valid arrangement of the books on the shelf, from left to right?
A. B, A, E, C, D.
B. B, C, D, E, A.
C. D, C, B, E, A.
D. A, B, D, E, C.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the primary purpose of inferential statistics?
A. Describe a population.
B. Make predictions about a population.
C. Analyze data from a sample.
D. Summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a pvalue represent in hypothesis testing?
A. Probability of the null hypothesis being true.
B. Probability of obtaining the observed result.
C. Probability of making a Type I error.
D. Probability of making a Type II error.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In a twotailed test, what is the significance level typically used?
A. 0.01.
B. 0.05.
C. 0.1.
D. 0.15.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is NOT a type of hypothesis test?
A. ttest.
B. ANOVA.
C. Regression analysis.
D. Chisquare test.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does the Central Limit Theorem state?
A. Sample means will always be normal.
B. The distribution of sample means approaches normality as sample size increases.
C. All populations are normally distributed.
D. Large samples eliminate sampling error.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of a confidence interval?
A. To estimate the mean of a sample.
B. To estimate the range of a population parameter.
C. To test a hypothesis.
D. To determine causation.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following indicates a strong positive correlation?
A. 0.
B. 0.5.
C. 0.8.
D. 0.9.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a Type I error represent?
A. Rejecting a true null hypothesis.
B. Accepting a false null hypothesis.
C. Rejecting a false null hypothesis.
D. Accepting a true null hypothesis.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the formula for the standard error of the mean?
A. s/vn.
B. s*n.
C. n/s.
D. s?/n.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In which scenario would you use a chisquare test?
A. Comparing means of two groups.
B. Analyzing categorical data.
C. Testing correlation between two variables.
D. Estimating population parameters.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does the term "power" refer to in hypothesis testing?
A. Probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis.
B. Probability of accepting a true null hypothesis.
C. Probability of making a Type I error.
D. Probability of making a Type II error.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is a nonparametric test?
A. ttest.
B. ANOVA.
C. MannWhitney U test.
D. Ztest.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the main assumption of linear regression analysis?
A. Normality of residuals.
B. Homogeneity of variances.
C. Independence of observations.
D. All of the above.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In hypothesis testing, what does a (alpha) represent?
A. Sample size.
B. Significance level.
C. Population mean.
D. Type I error rate.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the null hypothesis in a ttest for means?
A. There is a difference between means.
B. There is no difference between means.
C. Means are equal.
D. Means are not equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is true about a 95% confidence interval?
A. It guarantees that the population parameter is within the interval.
B. It means 95% of the data falls within the interval.
C. It means that 95% of the time the interval will contain the parameter.
D. It means that if we repeat the study, 95% of intervals will contain the parameter.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What type of data is required for ANOVA?
A. Categorical data only.
B. Continuous data only.
C. Both categorical and continuous data.
D. Ordinal data only.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In regression analysis, what does R? represent?
A. The slope of the regression line.
B. The correlation coefficient.
C. The proportion of variance explained.
D. The intercept of the regression line.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the main purpose of posthoc tests in ANOVA?
A. To compare means of two groups.
B. To determine the overall significance.
C. To identify which specific groups differ.
D. To calculate effect size.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a confidence level of 99% imply?
A. 1% chance of error.
B. 5% chance of error.
C. 95% chance of accuracy.
D. 99% chance of accuracy.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is an assumption of the ttest?
A. Samples are independent.
B. Populations are normally distributed.
C. Variances are equal.
D. All of the above.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the main focus of inferential statistics?
A. Describing data.
B. Making inferences about populations.
C. Collecting data.
D. Organizing data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In a oneway ANOVA, what does the Fstatistic compare?
A. Betweengroup variance to withingroup variance.
B. Means of different groups.
C. Sample sizes of different groups.
D. Total variance to error variance.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the effect of increasing sample size on the standard error?
A. It increases.
B. It decreases.
C. It has no effect.
D. It doubles.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which test would you use to compare the means of three or more groups?
A. ttest.
B. ANOVA.
C. Chisquare test.
D. Ztest.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of a hypothesis test?
A. To prove a theory.
B. To determine if there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
C. To collect data.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is a characteristic of a normal distribution?
A. Skewed to the right.
B. Symmetrical around the mean.
C. Mean is less than median.
D. All values are equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does it mean if a result is statistically significant?
A. The result is important.
B. The result is likely due to chance.
C. The result is unlikely due to chance.
D. The result is not important.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In a regression equation, what does the intercept represent?
A. The predicted value when all predictors are zero.
B. The slope of the line.
C. The correlation coefficient.
D. The standard deviation.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of a control group in an experiment?
A. To provide a baseline for comparison.
B. To manipulate the independent variable.
C. To increase sample size.
D. To ensure randomization.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a negative correlation indicate?
A. No relationship.
B. A direct relationship.
C. An inverse relationship.
D. A strong relationship.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is a limitation of inferential statistics?
A. Requires random sampling.
B. Assumes normality.
C. Sensitive to outliers.
D. All of the above.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of a scatter plot in regression analysis?
A. To visualize the relationship between two variables.
B. To summarize categorical data.
C. To show frequency distribution.
D. To calculate means.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In hypothesis testing, what does it mean to "reject the null hypothesis"?
A. Conclude there is an effect.
B. Conclude there is no effect.
C. Accept the null hypothesis.
D. None of the above.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the main characteristic of nonparametric tests?
A. They do not assume a normal distribution.
B. They require large sample sizes.
C. They are always more powerful than parametric tests.
D. They can only be used with categorical data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is an example of a Type II error?
A. Failing to reject a false null hypothesis.
B. Rejecting a true null hypothesis.
C. Accepting a true alternative hypothesis.
D. Rejecting a false alternative hypothesis.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of the Bonferroni correction?
A. To adjust for multiple comparisons.
B. To increase power.
C. To decrease sample size.
D. To improve accuracy.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a high pvalue indicate?
A. Strong evidence against the null hypothesis.
B. Weak evidence against the null hypothesis.
C. Strong evidence for the null hypothesis.
D. No evidence at all.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In regression analysis, what does multicollinearity refer to?
A. High correlation between independent variables.
B. Low correlation between independent variables.
C. High correlation between dependent variables.
D. No correlation at all.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the main goal of a regression analysis?
A. To predict outcomes.
B. To summarize data.
C. To visualize data.
D. To test hypotheses.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does the term "effect size" refer to?
A. The magnitude of a relationship.
B. The direction of a relationship.
C. The sample size.
D. The significance level.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following tests is used for paired samples?
A. Independent ttest.
B. Paired ttest.
C. ANOVA.
D. Chisquare test.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of a sample in inferential statistics?
A. To represent the entire population.
B. To summarize data.
C. To test hypotheses.
D. To collect data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a confidence interval of (10, 20) imply?
A. The population mean is exactly 15.
B. The population mean is between 10 and 20.
C. The sample mean is between 10 and 20.
D. The population mean is less than 10.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
In a twosample ttest, what assumption is made about the variances?
A. They are equal.
B. They are unequal.
C. They are both zero.
D. They are both one.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the main purpose of bootstrapping in statistics?
A. To estimate the sampling distribution.
B. To increase sample size.
C. To reduce bias.
D. To visualize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What does a 95% confidence interval mean?
A. 95% of the sample data falls within the interval.
B. We are 95% confident the population parameter is within the interval.
C. The interval will contain the parameter 95% of the time.
D. 95% chance of making a Type I error.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
Which of the following is an assumption of linear regression?
A. Homoscedasticity.
B. Multicollinearity.
C. Independence of errors.
D. All of the above.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics
What is the purpose of a regression coefficient?
A. To indicate the strength and direction of a relationship.
B. To summarize data.
C. To test hypotheses.
D. To calculate means.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the primary purpose of probability distributions?
A. To describe the likelihood of events.
B. To make predictions about populations.
C. To analyze data from samples.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the primary purpose of probability distributions?
A. To describe the likelihood of events.
B. To make predictions about populations.
C. To analyze data from samples.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
Which of the following is a discrete probability distribution?
A. Normal distribution.
B. Exponential distribution.
C. Poisson distribution.
D. Uniform distribution.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the main characteristic of a binomial distribution?
A. Continuous.
B. Discrete.
C. Symmetric.
D. Skewed.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what is the relationship between the mean and median?
A. Mean is always greater than median.
B. Mean is always less than median.
C. Mean and median are always equal.
D. Mean and median are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the standard normal distribution?
A. To standardize data.
B. To make predictions about populations.
C. To analyze data from samples.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
Which of the following is a property of the Poisson distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than variance.
B. Variance is always greater than mean.
C. Mean and variance are always equal.
D. Mean and variance are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in a normal distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than standard deviation.
B. Mean is always less than standard deviation.
C. Mean and standard deviation are always equal.
D. Mean and standard deviation are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what does the parameter p represent?
A. Probability of success in a single trial.
B. Probability of success in multiple trials.
C. Number of trials.
D. Number of failures.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Central Limit Theorem?
A. To describe the shape of a distribution.
B. To make inferences about population parameters.
C. To determine the sampling distribution of the mean.
D. To calculate probabilities.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
Which of the following is a continuous probability distribution?
A. Binomial distribution.
B. Poisson distribution.
C. Exponential distribution.
D. Hypergeometric distribution.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what does the 689599
A. 68% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 95% within 2 standard deviations, and 99.7% within 3 standard deviations.
B. 95% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 99.7% within 2 standard deviations, and 99.9% within 3 standard deviations.
C. 68% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 95% within 3 standard deviations, and 99.7% within 5 standard deviations.
D. 95% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 99.7% within 2 standard deviations, and 99.9% within 4 standard deviations.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the main assumption of the Poisson distribution?
A. Events occur independently.
B. Events occur at a constant rate.
C. Events occur in continuous time.
D. Events occur in discrete time.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the expected number of trials until the first success?
A. 1/p.
B. p.
C. 1p.
D. p/(1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and binomial distributions?
A. Binomial distribution approaches normal distribution as n increases and p is close to 0.5.
B. Binomial distribution is always normal.
C. Normal distribution is always binomial.
D. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In an exponential distribution, what does the parameter ? represent?
A. Mean.
B. Variance.
C. Standard deviation.
D. Rate parameter.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the main assumption?
A. Sampling is done with replacement.
B. Sampling is done without replacement.
C. Population size is infinite.
D. Events occur independently.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the mean and variance in an exponential distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than variance.
B. Variance is always greater than mean.
C. Mean and variance are always equal.
D. Mean and variance are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what does the 95% confidence interval represent?
A. 95% of the data lies within the interval.
B. 95% of the population lies within the interval.
C. 95% of the time the sample mean will fall within the interval.
D. 95% of the time the population mean will fall within the interval.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson process?
A. To model the number of events in a fixed interval of time or space.
B. To model the time between events.
C. To model the number of events in a continuous time interval.
D. To model the number of events in a discrete time interval.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a binomial distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = n!/(x!(nx)!) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
B. P(X=x) = ?^x * e^(?) / x!.
C. P(X=x) = (Nn)!/(x!(nx)!) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
D. P(X=x) = (N!/(x!(Nx)!)) * p^x * (1p)^(Nx).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and lognormal distributions?
A. Lognormal distribution is the logarithm of a normal distribution.
B. Normal distribution is the logarithm of a lognormal distribution.
C. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
D. Lognormal distribution is always normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
B. P(X=x) = (1p)^(x1) * p.
C. P(X=x) = p^x * (1p)^(nx).
D. P(X=x) = n!/(x!(nx)!) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution when n is large and p is small?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = (C(n,x) * C(Nn,nx)) / C(N,n).
B. P(X=x) = (n!/(x!(nx)!)) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
C. P(X=x) = ?^x * e^(?) / x!.
D. P(X=x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the mean and variance in a Poisson distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than variance.
B. Variance is always greater than mean.
C. Mean and variance are always equal.
D. Mean and variance are always 1.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In an exponential distribution, what is the probability density function?
A. f(x) = ? * e^(?x).
B. f(x) = (?^x * e^(?)) / x!.
C. f(x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
D. f(x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the normal approximation to the binomial distribution?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution skewed.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the expected number of failures before the first success?
A. 1/p.
B. p.
C. 1p.
D. p/(1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and uniform distributions?
A. Uniform distribution approaches normal distribution as the range increases.
B. Normal distribution is always uniform.
C. Uniform distribution is always normal.
D. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a Poisson distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = ?^x * e^(?) / x!.
B. P(X=x) = (n!/(x!(nx)!)) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
C. P(X=x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
D. P(X=x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the lognormal distribution?
A. To model variables that are the product of many independent random variables.
B. To model variables that are the sum of many independent random variables.
C. To model variables that are always positive.
D. To model variables that are always negative.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the expected number of successes?
A. n * (Nn)/N.
B. n * p.
C. n * (1p).
D. n * (Nn).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and exponential distributions?
A. Exponential distribution is the reciprocal of a normal distribution.
B. Normal distribution is the reciprocal of an exponential distribution.
C. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
D. Exponential distribution approaches normal distribution as the rate parameter increases.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a binomial distribution, what is the expected number of successes?
A. n * p.
B. n * (1p).
C. n * (n1) * p^2.
D. n * (n1) * p * (1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Central Limit Theorem in the context of probability distributions?
A. To show that the sampling distribution of the mean approaches a normal distribution as the sample size increases.
B. To prove that all probability distributions are normal.
C. To simplify calculations involving probability distributions.
D. To make inferences about population parameters.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what is the probability density function?
A. f(x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
B. f(x) = ? * e^(?x).
C. f(x) = (?^x * e^(?)) / x!.
D. f(x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the Poisson and exponential distributions?
A. Poisson distribution models the number of events in a fixed interval, while exponential distribution models the time between events.
B. Poisson distribution is always exponential.
C. Exponential distribution is always Poisson.
D. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the variance?
A. p/(1p).
B. 1/p.
C. (1p)/p^2.
D. p^2/(1p)^2.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution when n is large and p is small?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the variance?
A. n * (Nn) * (Nn1) / (N^2 * (N1)).
B. n * (Nn) / N.
C. n * p * (1p).
D. n * (1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and lognormal distributions?
A. Lognormal distribution is the logarithm of a normal distribution.
B. Normal distribution is the logarithm of a lognormal distribution.
C. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
D. Lognormal distribution is always normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a Poisson distribution, what is the variance?
A. ?.
B. 1/?.
C. ?^2.
D. v?.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the normal approximation to the binomial distribution when n is large and p is close to 0
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution skewed.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In an exponential distribution, what is the cumulative distribution function?
A. F(x) = 1  e^(?x).
B. F(x) = (?^x * e^(?)) / x!.
C. F(x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
D. F(x) = p * (1p)^(x1.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the role of 'hyperparameter tuning' in time series forecasting?
A. To select the best model.
B. To improve model accuracy.
C. To handle missing data.
D. To identify seasonality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In the context of a time series, what does 'MA' stand for in an ARMA model?
A. Moving Average.
B. Mean Average.
C. Median Average.
D. Maximum Average.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which method can be used to decompose a time series into additive components?
A. ARIMA.
B. GARCH.
C. STL.
D. VAR.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What does the term 'autoregressive' imply in the context of time series models?
A. The series is regressed on past values.
B. The series is regressed on future values.
C. The series is regressed on external variables.
D. The series is regressed on seasonal components.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which of the following techniques is used to handle missing data in time series?
A. Linear interpolation.
B. ARIMA modeling.
C. Exponential Smoothing.
D. Fourier Transform.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the purpose of the 'BoxCox transformation' in time series analysis?
A. To stabilize variance.
B. To remove trend.
C. To remove seasonality.
D. To handle missing values.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In a seasonal decomposition, what component represents the repeating patterns at fixed intervals?
A. Trend component.
B. Seasonal component.
C. Residual component.
D. Cyclical component.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is 'overfitting' in the context of time series modeling?
A. Using too few parameters.
B. Using too many parameters.
C. Ignoring seasonality.
D. Ignoring trend.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which of the following is a nonparametric method for time series forecasting?
A. ARIMA.
B. SARIMA.
C. Neural Networks.
D. Exponential Smoothing.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the primary goal of seasonal adjustment in time series analysis?
A. To remove longterm trends.
B. To remove shortterm noise.
C. To remove seasonal effects.
D. To remove random fluctuations.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In a HoltWinters seasonal model, what does the 'gamma' parameter represent?
A. Level smoothing.
B. Trend smoothing.
C. Seasonal smoothing.
D. Residual smoothing.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which method smooths time series data to identify trends and seasonal components?
A. GARCH.
B. ARIMA.
C. Exponential Smoothing.
D. VAR.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In time series forecasting, what is 'backtesting'?
A. Using future data to test the model.
B. Using historical data to test the model.
C. Using simulated data to test the model.
D. Using incomplete data to test the model.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What does the PACF (Partial Autocorrelation Function) measure?
A. Total correlation.
B. Partial correlation.
C. Autocorrelation of the residuals.
D. Moving average components.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which model can capture volatility clustering in financial time series data?
A. ARIMA.
B. GARCH.
C. SARIMA.
D. VAR.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the purpose of the KPSS test?
A. To test for stationarity.
B. To test for autocorrelation.
C. To test for seasonality.
D. To test for normality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In a time series context, what does 'cointegration' imply?
A. Series have similar variances.
B. Series have a longterm equilibrium relationship.
C. Series are nonstationary.
D. Series have the same trend.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the main purpose of the ADF test in time series analysis?
A. Testing for autocorrelation.
B. Testing for stationarity.
C. Testing for seasonality.
D. Testing for normality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which type of time series model includes multiple time series variables to capture their interactions?
A. ARIMA.
B. SARIMA.
C. VAR.
D. GARCH.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
When applying a Fourier transform to a time series, what type of analysis are you performing?
A. Frequency domain analysis.
B. Time domain analysis.
C. Regression analysis.
D. Decomposition analysis.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which model is specifically designed to handle changing variance in time series data?
A. ARIMA.
B. SARIMA.
C. GARCH.
D. VAR.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What does the 'Q' in the BoxJenkins model represent?
A. Number of autoregressive terms.
B. Number of moving average terms.
C. Number of seasonal terms.
D. Number of differences.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which of the following is a key assumption of stationarity in time series analysis?
A. Mean of the series is constant over time.
B. Variance of the series is constant over time.
C. Autocovariance does not depend on time.
D. All of the above.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the primary purpose of differencing a time series?
A. To remove seasonality.
B. To stabilize variance.
C. To achieve stationarity.
D. To remove outliers.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In ARIMA models, what does the 'I' stand for?
A. Interpolation.
B. Integration.
C. Imputation.
D. Iteration.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which of the following methods is NOT used for model selection in time series analysis?
A. AIC.
B. BIC.
C. MSE.
D. PCA.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What does the LjungBox test assess in a time series?
A. Stationarity.
B. Randomness.
C. Linearity.
D. Normality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In the context of an AR(p) model, 'p' stands for:
A. The number of differences.
B. The number of moving average terms.
C. The number of lagged observations included.
D. The number of autoregressive terms.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the primary characteristic of a seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA) model?
A. It accounts for cyclic patterns.
B. It accounts for seasonal patterns.
C. It removes trend.
D. It removes noise.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is a key difference between ARMA and ARIMA models?
A. ARMA models include differencing.
B. ARIMA models include differencing.
C. ARMA models handle seasonality.
D. ARIMA models cannot handle seasonality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which method would you use to forecast a nonlinear time series?
A. ARIMA.
B. Exponential Smoothing.
C. GARCH.
D. Neural Networks.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In a GARCH model, what does the conditional variance depend on?
A. Past values of the series.
B. Past errors.
C. Past variances.
D. Both past errors and past variances.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which technique is commonly used to decompose a time series into trend, seasonal, and residual components?
A. ARIMA.
B. Exponential Smoothing.
C. STL Decomposition.
D. GARCH.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
What is the DurbinWatson test used for in time series analysis?
A. Testing for stationarity.
B. Testing for autocorrelation.
C. Testing for normality.
D. Testing for seasonality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
In the context of time series, what does 'heteroscedasticity' refer to?
A. Constant variance over time.
B. Nonconstant variance over time.
C. Nonlinear trend.
D. Nonlinear seasonality.
Muntaha Nasir
STATISTICS

Time Series Analysis
Which type of plot is useful for identifying the presence of seasonality in a time series?
A. ACF plot.
B. PACF plot.
C. Scatter plot.
D. Seasonal subseries plot.
It is tedious right option?