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Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka
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Fani Warraich
CHEMISTRY

Biochemistry
DNA model was presented by Watson and Crick in
A. 1951.
B. 1952.
C. 1953.
D. 1954.
Fani Warraich
CHEMISTRY

Biochemistry
The "energy carrier" ATP is an example of a(n)
A. deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate.
B. dinucleotide.
C. ribonucleotide.
D. ribonucleoside triphosphate.
Fani Warraich
CHEMISTRY

Biochemistry
Sadenosyl methionine is a group donor of
A. Phosphate.
B. Methyl.
C. Adenosine.
D. Sulfate.
Fani Warraich
CHEMISTRY

Biochemistry
When DNA is heated, the temperature at which ________ of the helical structure is lost is defined as the melting temperature.
A. One half.
B. Two half.
C. Three half.
D. Complete.
Fani Warraich
CHEMISTRY

Biochemistry
Nucleotides also serve as carriers of activated intermediates in the synthesis of
A. Carbohydrates.
B. Lipids.
C. Proteins.
D. All of these.
Fani Warraich
MATHEMATICS

Calculus
The solution set of the inequality x + 4 ≥ 2 is
A. ( , 6] [2, ).
B. ( ,6] [ 2, ) .
C. ( , 6] [ 2, ) .
D. None of these.
Fani Warraich
MATHEMATICS

Algebra
Solve the equation 2/6 (3a + 2b) – 1/2 (2a + 4b) 2(12a – 6b)?
A. 6a – 7b.
B. 2a + 4b.
C. 5a + 6b.
D. 7a – 8b.
Shalisha Ladawn
PHYSICS

Classical Mechanics
Electric displacement current through a surface S is by definition proportional to the
A. rate of change of the electric flux through S.
B. magnetic flux through S.
C. rate of change of the magnetic flux through S.
D. time integral of the magnetic flux through S.
Shalisha Ladawn
PHYSICS

Classical Mechanics
Classical mechanics explains how _______ moves.
A. Macroscopic object.
B. Microscopic object.
C. All of above.
D. None of these.
Fani Warraich
PHYSICS

Electromagnetism
The Net Magnetic flux from any closed surface is
A. Infinity.
B. Zero.
C. Negative.
D. Positive.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Thermodynamics
A heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures T1 and T2, with T1 > T2. What is the maximum efficiency of the engine?
A. 1  (T2 / T1).
B. 1  (T1 / T2).
C. T1 / T2.
D. T2 / T1.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Thermodynamics
A system undergoes a reversible isothermal expansion from volume V1 to V2. What is the change in internal energy of the system?
A. ΔU = 0.
B. ΔU = Q.
C. ΔU = W.
D. ΔU = W.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Thermodynamics
What is the name of the process by which a system transitions from a metastable state to a stable state with a decrease in free energy?
A. Melting.
B. Boiling.
C. Condensation.
D. Nucleation.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Thermodynamics
A gas is compressed adiabatically from pressure P1 to P2. What is the change in temperature of the gas?
A. T2 = T1 * (P2 / P1)^(γ  1).
B. T2 = T1 * (P2 / P1)^(1 / γ).
C. T2 = T1 * (P1 / P2)^(γ  1).
D. T2 = T1 * (P1 / P2)^(1 / γ).
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Thermodynamics
What is the name of the thermodynamic potential that describes a system at constant pressure and temperature?
A. Helmholtz free energy.
B. Gibbs free energy.
C. Landau free energy.
D. Enthalpy.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Electromagnetism
A charged particle moves with a velocity v = 0.6c in a region with a uniform magnetic field B = 2T. What is the magnitude of the force experienced by the particle if its charge is q = 3 × 10^(6) C?
A. 3.6 × 10^(3) N.
B. 3.6 × 10^(2) N.
C. 3.6 × 10^(1) N.
D. 3.6 N.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Electromagnetism
A parallelplate capacitor has a capacitance C = 5 μF and is charged to a voltage V = 12 V. If the plates are separated by a distance d = 2 mm, what is the energy density of the electric field between the plates?
A. 1.8 × 10^5 J/m^3.
B. 1.8 × 10^4 J/m^3.
C. 1.8 × 10^3 J/m^3.
D. 1.8 × 10^2 J/m^3.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Electromagnetism
A coil of 500 turns and crosssectional area A = 0.02 m^2 is placed in a region with a uniform magnetic field B = 0.1 T. If the coil is rotated at a constant angular velocity ω = 20 rad/s, what is the maximum emf induced in the coil?
A. 1.57 V.
B. 3.14 V.
C. 6.28 V.
D. 12.56 V.
Gitofa Shah
PHYSICS

Electromagnetism
A beam of light with a wavelength λ = 500 nm is incident on a diffraction grating with 5000 lines per meter. What is the angular separation between the firstorder maxima?
A. 0.01 rad.
B. 0.1 rad.
C. 1 rad.
D. 10 rad.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following statements about the bonding in ethyne (acetylene, C2H2) is correct?
A. Ethyne has two sp3 hybridized carbons with a triple bond between them..
B. Ethyne has two sp2 hybridized carbons with a double bond between them..
C. Ethyne has two sp hybridized carbons with a triple bond between them..
D. Ethyne has two sp2 hybridized carbons with a single bond between them..
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following functional groups can act as both an acid and a base?
A. Alcohol.
B. Amine.
C. Carboxylic acid.
D. Amide.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following compounds is chiral?
A. 2Butanol.
B. 1Butanol.
C. 2Methylpropane.
D. Ethanol.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
In which of the following reactions does the formation of a carbocation intermediate occur?
A. SN2 reaction.
B. E2 reaction.
C. SN1 reaction.
D. DielsAlder reaction.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
What is the first step in the retrosynthetic analysis of 1bromo2phenylethane?
A. Remove the bromine atom..
B. Identify the phenyl group attachment..
C. Identify a precursor for the ethane chain..
D. Consider a FriedelCrafts alkylation..
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
In proton NMR spectroscopy, what splitting pattern would you expect for the protons on the methylene group in ethyl acetate (CH3COOCH2CH3)?
A. Singlet.
B. Doublet.
C. Triplet.
D. Quartet.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following compounds is not aromatic?
A. Benzene.
B. Pyridine.
C. Cyclooctatetraene.
D. Naphthalene.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
In an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, which intermediate is formed?
A. Carbocation.
B. Free radical.
C. Anion.
D. Sigma complex.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following statements about the polymerization of ethylene to form polyethylene is correct?
A. It is a condensation polymerization..
B. It involves the elimination of water..
C. It is a free radical polymerization..
D. It forms a crosslinked polymer..
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following heterocycles contains nitrogen and is aromatic?
A. Furan.
B. Thiophene.
C. Pyrrole.
D. Oxazole.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which type of enzyme catalysis involves the formation of a covalent bond between the enzyme and the substrate?
A. Acidbase catalysis.
B. Covalent catalysis.
C. Metal ion catalysis.
D. Proximity and orientation effects.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry
Which of the following principles is not one of the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry?
A. Designing safer chemicals..
B. Using renewable feedstocks..
C. Maximizing atom economy..
D. Increasing chemical yields..
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following elements has the highest second ionization energy?
A. Sodium (Na).
B. Magnesium (Mg).
C. Aluminum (Al).
D. Silicon (Si).
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following molecules has the most polar bond?
A. HCl.
B. CO.
C. HF.
D. H2O.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
In a facecentered cubic (fcc) lattice, what is the coordination number of each atom?
A. 4.
B. 6.
C. 8.
D. 12.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following ligands will cause the greatest splitting in the dorbital energies of a central metal ion according to the spectrochemical series?
A. H2O.
B. NH3.
C. CN⁻.
D. Cl⁻.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
In the compound ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2), what is the oxidation state of the iron center?
A. 0.
B. +1.
C. +2.
D. +3.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which metal ion is at the active site of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase?
A. Fe.
B. Zn.
C. Cu.
D. Mg.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following elements forms a stable diatomic molecule in the gas phase?
A. Phosphorus (P).
B. Sulfur (S).
C. Nitrogen (N).
D. Silicon (Si).
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following transition metals exhibits the highest number of oxidation states?
A. Iron (Fe).
B. Manganese (Mn).
C. Chromium (Cr).
D. Copper (Cu).
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following actinides is commonly used as a fuel in nuclear reactors?
A. Thorium (Th).
B. Uranium (U).
C. Neptunium (Np).
D. Curium (Cm).
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following compounds acts as both a Lewis acid and a Lewis base?
A. H₂O.
B. NH₃.
C. BF₃.
D. AlCl₃.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following is a typical example of an innersphere electron transfer reaction?
A. Oxidation of Fe²⁺ by Ce⁴⁺.
B. Reduction of MnO₄⁻ by Fe²⁺.
C. Reduction of Cr₂O₇²⁻ by Zn.
D. Oxidation of Cl⁻ by MnO₄⁻.
Malen Bara
CHEMISTRY

Inorganic Chemistry
Which of the following methods is commonly used to synthesize graphene?
A. Solgel process.
B. Chemical vapor deposition.
C. Hydrothermal synthesis.
D. Coprecipitation.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the primary purpose of probability distributions?
A. To describe the likelihood of events.
B. To make predictions about populations.
C. To analyze data from samples.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the primary purpose of probability distributions?
A. To describe the likelihood of events.
B. To make predictions about populations.
C. To analyze data from samples.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
Which of the following is a discrete probability distribution?
A. Normal distribution.
B. Exponential distribution.
C. Poisson distribution.
D. Uniform distribution.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the main characteristic of a binomial distribution?
A. Continuous.
B. Discrete.
C. Symmetric.
D. Skewed.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what is the relationship between the mean and median?
A. Mean is always greater than median.
B. Mean is always less than median.
C. Mean and median are always equal.
D. Mean and median are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the standard normal distribution?
A. To standardize data.
B. To make predictions about populations.
C. To analyze data from samples.
D. To summarize data.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
Which of the following is a property of the Poisson distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than variance.
B. Variance is always greater than mean.
C. Mean and variance are always equal.
D. Mean and variance are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in a normal distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than standard deviation.
B. Mean is always less than standard deviation.
C. Mean and standard deviation are always equal.
D. Mean and standard deviation are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what does the parameter p represent?
A. Probability of success in a single trial.
B. Probability of success in multiple trials.
C. Number of trials.
D. Number of failures.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Central Limit Theorem?
A. To describe the shape of a distribution.
B. To make inferences about population parameters.
C. To determine the sampling distribution of the mean.
D. To calculate probabilities.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
Which of the following is a continuous probability distribution?
A. Binomial distribution.
B. Poisson distribution.
C. Exponential distribution.
D. Hypergeometric distribution.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what does the 689599
A. 68% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 95% within 2 standard deviations, and 99.7% within 3 standard deviations.
B. 95% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 99.7% within 2 standard deviations, and 99.9% within 3 standard deviations.
C. 68% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 95% within 3 standard deviations, and 99.7% within 5 standard deviations.
D. 95% of data lies within 1 standard deviation, 99.7% within 2 standard deviations, and 99.9% within 4 standard deviations.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the main assumption of the Poisson distribution?
A. Events occur independently.
B. Events occur at a constant rate.
C. Events occur in continuous time.
D. Events occur in discrete time.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the expected number of trials until the first success?
A. 1/p.
B. p.
C. 1p.
D. p/(1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and binomial distributions?
A. Binomial distribution approaches normal distribution as n increases and p is close to 0.5.
B. Binomial distribution is always normal.
C. Normal distribution is always binomial.
D. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In an exponential distribution, what does the parameter ? represent?
A. Mean.
B. Variance.
C. Standard deviation.
D. Rate parameter.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the main assumption?
A. Sampling is done with replacement.
B. Sampling is done without replacement.
C. Population size is infinite.
D. Events occur independently.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the mean and variance in an exponential distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than variance.
B. Variance is always greater than mean.
C. Mean and variance are always equal.
D. Mean and variance are not necessarily equal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what does the 95% confidence interval represent?
A. 95% of the data lies within the interval.
B. 95% of the population lies within the interval.
C. 95% of the time the sample mean will fall within the interval.
D. 95% of the time the population mean will fall within the interval.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson process?
A. To model the number of events in a fixed interval of time or space.
B. To model the time between events.
C. To model the number of events in a continuous time interval.
D. To model the number of events in a discrete time interval.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a binomial distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = n!/(x!(nx)!) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
B. P(X=x) = ?^x * e^(?) / x!.
C. P(X=x) = (Nn)!/(x!(nx)!) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
D. P(X=x) = (N!/(x!(Nx)!)) * p^x * (1p)^(Nx).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and lognormal distributions?
A. Lognormal distribution is the logarithm of a normal distribution.
B. Normal distribution is the logarithm of a lognormal distribution.
C. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
D. Lognormal distribution is always normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
B. P(X=x) = (1p)^(x1) * p.
C. P(X=x) = p^x * (1p)^(nx).
D. P(X=x) = n!/(x!(nx)!) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution when n is large and p is small?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = (C(n,x) * C(Nn,nx)) / C(N,n).
B. P(X=x) = (n!/(x!(nx)!)) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
C. P(X=x) = ?^x * e^(?) / x!.
D. P(X=x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the mean and variance in a Poisson distribution?
A. Mean is always greater than variance.
B. Variance is always greater than mean.
C. Mean and variance are always equal.
D. Mean and variance are always 1.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In an exponential distribution, what is the probability density function?
A. f(x) = ? * e^(?x).
B. f(x) = (?^x * e^(?)) / x!.
C. f(x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
D. f(x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the normal approximation to the binomial distribution?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution skewed.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the expected number of failures before the first success?
A. 1/p.
B. p.
C. 1p.
D. p/(1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and uniform distributions?
A. Uniform distribution approaches normal distribution as the range increases.
B. Normal distribution is always uniform.
C. Uniform distribution is always normal.
D. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a Poisson distribution, what is the probability mass function?
A. P(X=x) = ?^x * e^(?) / x!.
B. P(X=x) = (n!/(x!(nx)!)) * p^x * (1p)^(nx).
C. P(X=x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
D. P(X=x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the lognormal distribution?
A. To model variables that are the product of many independent random variables.
B. To model variables that are the sum of many independent random variables.
C. To model variables that are always positive.
D. To model variables that are always negative.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the expected number of successes?
A. n * (Nn)/N.
B. n * p.
C. n * (1p).
D. n * (Nn).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and exponential distributions?
A. Exponential distribution is the reciprocal of a normal distribution.
B. Normal distribution is the reciprocal of an exponential distribution.
C. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
D. Exponential distribution approaches normal distribution as the rate parameter increases.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a binomial distribution, what is the expected number of successes?
A. n * p.
B. n * (1p).
C. n * (n1) * p^2.
D. n * (n1) * p * (1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Central Limit Theorem in the context of probability distributions?
A. To show that the sampling distribution of the mean approaches a normal distribution as the sample size increases.
B. To prove that all probability distributions are normal.
C. To simplify calculations involving probability distributions.
D. To make inferences about population parameters.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a normal distribution, what is the probability density function?
A. f(x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
B. f(x) = ? * e^(?x).
C. f(x) = (?^x * e^(?)) / x!.
D. f(x) = p * (1p)^(x1).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the Poisson and exponential distributions?
A. Poisson distribution models the number of events in a fixed interval, while exponential distribution models the time between events.
B. Poisson distribution is always exponential.
C. Exponential distribution is always Poisson.
D. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a geometric distribution, what is the variance?
A. p/(1p).
B. 1/p.
C. (1p)/p^2.
D. p^2/(1p)^2.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution when n is large and p is small?
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a hypergeometric distribution, what is the variance?
A. n * (Nn) * (Nn1) / (N^2 * (N1)).
B. n * (Nn) / N.
C. n * p * (1p).
D. n * (1p).
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the relationship between the normal and lognormal distributions?
A. Lognormal distribution is the logarithm of a normal distribution.
B. Normal distribution is the logarithm of a lognormal distribution.
C. There is no relationship between the two distributions.
D. Lognormal distribution is always normal.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In a Poisson distribution, what is the variance?
A. ?.
B. 1/?.
C. ?^2.
D. v?.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
What is the purpose of the normal approximation to the binomial distribution when n is large and p is close to 0
A. To simplify calculations.
B. To make the binomial distribution discrete.
C. To make the binomial distribution continuous.
D. To make the binomial distribution skewed.
Togus Bash
STATISTICS

Probability Distributions
In an exponential distribution, what is the cumulative distribution function?
A. F(x) = 1  e^(?x).
B. F(x) = (?^x * e^(?)) / x!.
C. F(x) = (1/sv(2p)) * e^((x?)^2 / (2s^2)).
D. F(x) = p * (1p)^(x1.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the significance of the partition function in statistical mechanics?
A. Measures energy distribution.
B. Describes entropy.
C. Normalizes probability.
D. Defines temperature.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which equation relates the Gibbs free energy to the equilibrium constant?
A. Arrhenius equation.
B. Van't Hoff equation.
C. Nernst equation.
D. ClausiusClapeyron equation.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the fundamental principle behind the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
A. Exact position and momentum.
B. Exact energy levels.
C. Conjugate variables.
D. Particlewave duality.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In quantum chemistry, what does the term 'degenerate orbitals' refer to?
A. Orbitals with different shapes.
B. Orbitals with the same energy.
C. Orbitals with different spins.
D. Orbitals in different subshells.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which theory explains the shapes of molecular orbitals formed from atomic orbitals?
A. Valence Bond Theory.
B. Molecular Orbital Theory.
C. Crystal Field Theory.
D. Ligand Field Theory.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the main purpose of the Schr?dinger equation in quantum mechanics?
A. Predicts chemical reactions.
B. Describes particlewave duality.
C. Determines energy levels.
D. Measures electron spin.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which thermodynamic quantity is maximized at equilibrium for a closed system?
A. Enthalpy.
B. Entropy.
C. Gibbs free energy.
D. Helmholtz free energy.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the key concept behind the DebyeH?ckel theory in electrochemistry?
A. Activity coefficients.
B. Ionic strength.
C. Diffusion coefficients.
D. Redox potentials.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In spectroscopy, what is the significance of the FranckCondon principle?
A. Energy transitions.
B. Electronic states.
C. Vibrational overlaps.
D. Spinorbit coupling.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which concept explains the deviation of real gases from ideal behavior?
A. Van der Waals equation.
B. Boyle's law.
C. Charles's law.
D. Avogadro's law.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the principle of microscopic reversibility in chemical kinetics?
A. Reaction rates.
B. Equilibrium constants.
C. Path independence.
D. Reaction mechanisms.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In solidstate chemistry, what does the term 'band gap' refer to?
A. Energy between electron shells.
B. Energy between atomic orbitals.
C. Energy between conduction and valence bands.
D. Energy between molecular orbitals.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which phenomenon is described by the term 'quantum tunneling'?
A. Particle acceleration.
B. Wave interference.
C. Barrier penetration.
D. Energy quantization.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the main outcome of the BornOppenheimer approximation in molecular quantum mechanics?
A. Separation of nuclear and electronic motion.
B. Determination of molecular orbitals.
C. Calculation of reaction rates.
D. Prediction of molecular geometries.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In surface chemistry, what does the term 'chemisorption' imply?
A. Weak physical adsorption.
B. Strong chemical bonding.
C. Multilayer adsorption.
D. Desorption at high temperatures.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the primary purpose of a catalyst in a chemical reaction?
A. Increase yield.
B. Lower activation energy.
C. Change reaction pathway.
D. Increase reactant concentration.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which concept in thermodynamics is described by the Gibbs phase rule?
A. Number of phases in equilibrium.
B. Enthalpy changes.
C. Entropy changes.
D. Heat capacity.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the significance of the Bohr radius in atomic physics?
A. Electron energy levels.
B. Proton radius.
C. Atomic nucleus size.
D. Ground state electron orbit.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which technique is used to study the energy levels of electrons in atoms and molecules?
A. IR Spectroscopy.
B. NMR Spectroscopy.
C. UVVis Spectroscopy.
D. Xray Crystallography.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What does the term 'spinorbit coupling' describe in atomic structure?
A. Interaction between electrons and protons.
B. Interaction between electron spin and orbital motion.
C. Interaction between atomic nuclei.
D. Interaction between atoms in a molecule.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In thermodynamics, what does the Helmholtz free energy represent?
A. Maximum work at constant pressure.
B. Maximum work at constant temperature and volume.
C. Heat absorbed at constant pressure.
D. Heat absorbed at constant volume.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which law describes the relationship between the intensity of light absorbed and the concentration of the absorbing species?
A. BeerLambert Law.
B. Henry's Law.
C. Raoult's Law.
D. Dalton's Law.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the primary focus of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm?
A. Adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces.
B. Multilayer adsorption.
C. Adsorption on homogeneous surfaces.
D. Absorption in bulk phase.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which term describes the change in Gibbs free energy for a reaction at constant temperature and pressure?
A. Enthalpy change.
B. Entropy change.
C. Reaction quotient.
D. Free energy change.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the role of a Maxwell relation in thermodynamics?
A. Relates thermodynamic potentials.
B. Measures entropy changes.
C. Calculates heat capacity.
D. Determines reaction rates.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In spectroscopy, what does the term 'Stark effect' refer to?
A. Splitting of spectral lines due to magnetic field.
B. Splitting of spectral lines due to electric field.
C. Broadening of spectral lines due to pressure.
D. Shifting of spectral lines due to temperature.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the principle behind the Boltzmann distribution in statistical mechanics?
A. Distribution of molecular speeds.
B. Distribution of particle velocities.
C. Distribution of energy states.
D. Distribution of pressure.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which type of chemical bond involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms?
A. Ionic bond.
B. Covalent bond.
C. Metallic bond.
D. Hydrogen bond.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the concept of 'enthalpy of formation'?
A. Heat absorbed in breaking bonds.
B. Heat released in bond formation.
C. Heat change in forming one mole of a compound from its elements.
D. Heat change in a phase transition.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In the context of quantum mechanics, what does the Pauli exclusion principle state?
A. Electrons have waveparticle duality.
B. No two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers.
C. Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels first.
D. Electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which type of molecular vibration is active in IR spectroscopy?
A. Symmetric stretching.
B. Asymmetric stretching.
C. Bending.
D. All of the above.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the primary factor that determines the rate of a chemical reaction?
A. Temperature.
B. Pressure.
C. Reactant concentration.
D. Activation energy.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which term describes the equilibrium constant of a reaction in which all reactants and products are in the same phase?
A. Kp.
B. Kc.
C. Ka.
D. Kd.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the principle of 'Le Chatelier's Principle' in chemical equilibrium?
A. Describes the effect of temperature on reaction rates.
B. Describes the effect of pressure on reaction rates.
C. Predicts the direction of shift in equilibrium when a change occurs.
D. Describes the formation of complexes.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In the context of phase transitions, what does the term 'latent heat' refer to?
A. Heat required to change temperature.
B. Heat released during chemical reactions.
C. Heat absorbed or released during a phase change.
D. Heat conducted through a substance.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the primary use of the Arrhenius equation in chemical kinetics?
A. Determine equilibrium constants.
B. Calculate rate constants.
C. Predict product yields.
D. Measure heat capacities.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In electrochemistry, what does the term 'standard electrode potential' refer to?
A. Potential of a halfcell under standard conditions.
B. Potential difference between two electrodes.
C. Work done by an electrochemical cell.
D. Energy required to transfer electrons.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the concept of 'chemical potential' in thermodynamics?
A. Energy per mole of substance.
B. Energy required for phase change.
C. Energy required for chemical reaction.
D. Energy change associated with the addition of a particle.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
Which principle explains the emission and absorption spectra of atoms?
A. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
B. Bohr's Model.
C. Rydberg Formula.
D. Quantum Mechanical Model.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the significance of the 'Z' parameter in crystallography?
A. Number of formula units in a unit cell.
B. Atomic number.
C. Coordination number.
D. Lattice parameter.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
In the context of reaction mechanisms, what does the term 'ratedetermining step' refer to?
A. Fastest step in the mechanism.
B. Slowest step in the mechanism.
C. Step with the highest energy transition state.
D. Step with the lowest activation energy.
Muntaha Nasir
CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry
What is the main principle behind the 'Tyndall effect' in colloidal chemistry?
A. Scattering of light by colloidal particles.
B. Absorption of light by colloidal particles.
C. Reflection of light by colloidal particles.
D. Diffusion of light by colloidal particles.
Contributor(6)
Fani Warraich
Shalisha Ladawn
Gitofa Shah
Malen Bara
Togus Bash
Muntaha Nasir
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